International Land Measurement Standards (ILMS)

Part 4 ILMS Components

The ILMS component sections below are listed in framework order and are considered to be of equal importance.

  • The flexibility of fit for purpose land administration principles should apply.
  • Report the data available to the highest practicable standard.
  • Explanation of difference between standard and available information.
  • The bullet points within each component are examples only. High income/data rich geographies may allow every data element to be captured, while informal and other data poor geographies may not. The listing is not prescriptive or exhaustive and there is an understanding that different geographies and purposes will require different levels of data.
  • Complete as much of the reporting framework as possible to the highest practicable standard and if you cannot fill in all the data then this will increase the element of risk (see Appendix A).

The 'fit-for-purpose approach' is designed to meet the needs of society today and can be incrementally improved over time. Its key concepts are that it is:

  • Flexible in the spatial data capture approaches to provide for varying use and occupation.
  • Inclusive in scope to cover all tenure and all land.
  • Participatory in approach to data capture and use to ensure community support.
  • Affordable for the government to establish and operate, and for society to use.
  • Reliable in terms of information that is authoritative and up-to-date.
  • Attainable to establish the system within a short timeframe and within available resources.
  • Upgradeable with regard to incremental improvement over time in response to social and legal needs and emerging economic opportunities.

Each of the seven key land information components listed below can incorporate 'fit for purpose' principles which can mean a very basic level of information or in some cases a high level of data availability. Fit for Purpose needs to be contextualised within the geography that it is applied to. Indeed, every national land transfer and administration system should be 'fit for purpose' independent of its allocation of resources and/or wealth.

Land Tenure Component

Where practicable and in line with local market practice ILMS would recommend that Land Tenure is documented, and recorded and held as a publicly accessible record. Normally a documented and recorded tenure can contain all the following:

  • Type of Land Tenure (i.e. ownership, occupational right, interest, etc.)
  • Name of Owner(s) (individual, joint, communal, other)
  • Record of gender of owner(s)
  • Name of Occupier (individual, joint, communal, other)
  • A narrative Description of Land (including recorded documentation and boundaries)
  • Unique parcel identifier for each individual land parcel: where applicable, an official designation
  • Length of Tenure
  • Rights, restrictions and responsibilities.
  • Other rights and restrictions (public and/or private) in relation to the land (e.g. easement, covenants, encumbrance, lien, license)
  • Other rights associated with the land and not forming a part of the actual land parcel itself (e.g. commonage, turbary rights)
  • Condominium rights.

Parcel Delimitation and Description (Boundary) Component

The boundaries of the overall land parcel and any unique parcels therein should be described in detail to allow the overall area to be identified in an unambiguous manner. It should include the following:

  • Unique parcel identifier for each individual parcel: where applicable, an official designation
  • Physical site inspection and or verification
  • Satellite or aerial ortho-image of the overall land parcel together with any unique parcels therein and with all boundaries indicated, where possible, an adequate scale to allow visibility
  • Coordinates of each boundary corner or pivot point in WGS 84 UTM. Where a National coordinate system if is in if existence it should be used.
  • Where the land parcel is restricted in the third dimension (aerial/underground), these restrictions must be clearly stated. Where a National Datum is in existence it should be used. The extent of any known legal claims that exist in relation to the land parcel and or parcels therein should be identified (e.g. Public Legal Restrictions). The extent of any probable unverified claims that may exist but are not evidenced in writing should be identified where possible to do so
  • Dimensions of each boundary line or arc in length and grid azimuth, as recorded at the time of survey. If obtained in any other manner specify same and state limitations and restrictions
  • Any known differences that exist between documented boundaries, legal boundaries and physical boundaries should be identified where possible to do so
  • Area/volume of parcel complete with a statement of area where possible stating any limitations or restrictions
  • Site plan of the overall land parcel complete with each individual parcel (Cadastral or Index or whatever is used Nationally) therein
  • Cadastral or Registered Index Map(s) of the topological relationship of all parcels visualised at adequate/appropriate scale for parcel size.

Site/Land Area Component

The site/land area measurement specification will be dependent on the purpose for which the measurement is being commissioned paying particular attention to survey detail accuracy in relation to boundaries. This component is mainly derived from the Parcel Delimitation and Description (Boundary) Component but also contains information on planning and development area (land measurement for development purposes). During land acquisition this site/land area component (along with the building component if applicable) can be critical for the establishment of non-physical compensation. It is recognised that in some locations there may not be the resources to support site/land area measurement to international standards. In these circumstances the land area should include the following:

  • Site Land Area. Areas with limited/restricted use rights are to be defined and stated separately.
  • Use/Purpose
  • Written description of identified features
  • Sketch Site Plan with basic measurements and orientation

Land Use Component

All Land Use designations must be in accordance with specific legislative, planning, regulatory or other authoritative requirements and should include:

  • Unique parcel identifier for each individual land parcel: where applicable, an official designation
  • Land cover components (partial or whole)
  • Land use
  • Source of land use
  • Quality of soil and gradation
  • Legally binding land use plans
  • Other characteristics (whether recognised, proposed or intended), e.g. National Park, UNESCO World Heritage, monument protection, historical sites
  • Date of land use (approval and implementation)
  • Change of land use/ land cover and its date
  • Land development plans

Services Component

The purpose of this Component of the Standard is to enable accurate reporting of the current factual status of any services, utilities and or other infrastructure that serve the property be it on or abutting the land or site being transacted up to and including the point of the transaction.

Services, utilities and or infrastructure services includes, but is not limited to, all items that form an integral part of the land or property. It also includes all third-party interests, which it is dependent on to maintain its current functionality and usability.

  • Road access:
    • Status and quality
    • Access/Egress points (Vehicular and pedestrian)
    • Length of Road Frontage
  • Potable water supply
  • Waste water/sewerage disposal
  • Drainage
  • Electricity
  • Gas
  • Telephony/telecommunications
  • Internet access
  • Other Municipal Services (specify)
  • Garbage Disposal
  • Postal Service.

Building Component

All Building(s) contained within the perimeter of the Land should be checked to ensure that the Building(s) complies with all the appropriate planning and other regulations and building codes. In instances where the Building(s) is ancillary to the authorised use of the Land, in addition to the above the following details, where available should be provided and if these are not available then this would just increase the element of risk:

  • Unique parcel identifier for each individual land parcel: where applicable, an official designation
  • Aerial Image including the date the image was created
  • Photograph of the Building(s) façade and date the image was created
  • Current use or, if dilapidated, the previous use of the Building(s)
  • Record of current or previous Building occupation
  • Statement on all buildings and structures whether authorised or unauthorised
  • Perimeter measurements of the Building (IPMS 1)
  • Percentage of Land Occupied by Building(s)
  • Area of any ancillary hard surface
  • Relevant Certification/Documentation (i.e. local government building and planning certificates)
  • Number of floors
  • Planning use/authorised use/unauthorised use
  • Environmental issues (energy use/hazardous building materials/heat for example).

Land Valuation Component

All valuations should be in accordance with national valuation standards. Where there is no established national valuation standard in place then practitioners should include the following within their Land Valuation:

  • Unique parcel identifier for each individual parcel: where applicable, an official designation
  • Identity of the valuer, client and other intended users
  • Asset being valued and if part of a connected transaction
  • Valuation Standard adopted
  • Purpose of the Valuation
  • Valuation date
  • Nature and sources of information upon which the valuer relies
  • Nature and extent of the valuers work, investigations made including limitations thereon
  • Basis/bases of value used
  • Valuation approach or approaches adopted
  • Valuation method or methods applied
  • Key inputs and assumptions made
  • Conclusion(s) of value and principal reasons for any conclusions reached
  • Valuation currency
  • Date of the report
  • Signature of the person responsible for the ILMS Report.